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What does a photovoltaic module consist of? The material composition and role of photovoltaic modules

2023-01-13
Photovoltaic modules generally refer to solar cell modules. As the end product of the PV industry, there are many kinds of raw materials used in PV modules, and the selection of different materials will directly affect the performance of the modules. So, what are the main materials of PV modules?

The material composition and function of photovoltaic modules

Photovoltaic modules are composed of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells, ultra-white fabric tempered glass, EVA, transparent TPT back sheet, and aluminum alloy frame. It has the characteristics of long service life and strong mechanical resistance to external forces. The material composition and function of photovoltaic modules are as follows.
1. Tempered glass: its role is to protect the main body of power generation (such as cells), the selection of light transmission requirements: 1) light transmission must be high (generally 91% or more); 2) ultra-white tempering treatment.
2. EVA: used to bond the fixed tempered glass and power generation body (such as cells), the merits of transparent EVA material directly affects the life of the component, exposed to the air EVA easily aging yellowing, thus affecting the component light transmission, thus affecting the quality of power generation components in addition to the quality of EVA itself, the impact of the component manufacturers lamination process is also very large, such as EVA adhesive degree is not up to standard. EVA and tempered glass, backplane bonding strength is not enough, will cause early aging of EVA, affecting the component life.
3. Battery cells: the main role is to generate electricity, the main body of the power generation market mainstream is crystalline silicon solar cells, and thin film solar cells, both have their advantages and disadvantages crystalline silicon solar cells, equipment costs are relatively low, but consumption and cell costs are very high, but the photoelectric conversion efficiency is also high, in the outdoor sunlight generation is more suitable for thin film solar cells, relatively high equipment costs, but consumption and cell costs are very low But the photoelectric conversion efficiency is relatively crystalline silicon cells more than half, but the low light effect is very good, in ordinary light can also generate electricity, such as solar cells on the calculator.
4. Backplane: role, sealing, insulation, waterproof. Generally used TPT, TPE and other materials must be resistant to aging, most component manufacturers' warranty is 25 years, and tempered glass and aluminum alloy are generally no problem, the key is in with the backplane and silicone whether it can meet the requirements.
5. Aluminum alloy: protection laminate, plays a certain sealing, and support role.
6. Junction box: protect the entire power generation system, and play the role of the current transfer station, if the component short circuit junction box automatically disconnects the short-circuiting battery string, to prevent burning the entire system junction box in the most critical is the choice of the diode, according to the type of cells in the component, the corresponding diode is not the same.
7. Silicone: sealing role, used to seal the components and aluminum alloy frame, components, and junction box junction some companies use double-sided tape, and foam to replace silicone, the domestic common use of silicone, the process are simple, convenient, easy to operate, and the cost is very low.

Photovoltaic module materials mainly include the above seven parts, each part needs to be treated finely, and small details have a big impact.






 
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